DNA structure and function. What is its role in present life.

  DNA is a genetic material found in all eukaryotic organisms. It is present in the nucleus. The nucleus is a double membrane-bound cell organelle it helps in the storage of information and duplication of genetic material and it bears the genetic material in the form of chromatids. The chromatids are thread-like structures present in the chromosomes which we called as DNA.





What is DNA?


One of the important bio-molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms is DNA. We all know that bio in the sense of life and the molecule, which is a chemical constituent that means it is a bio-molecule present everywhere in life. DNA was first identified by the scientist  Johannes Friedric Miescher in 1869. 

DNA is a nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are the large polymeric chemical compounds that can capable of breaking down and yield sugars, phosphate, and organic bases or nitrogenous bases. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. Here we are known to study the DNA structure and function.


DNA structure and function


DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleicacid. It is an important nucleic acid which is essential for various forms of life. It helps to transform genetic information from parents to off springs. The DNA contains the instructions that an organism requires to develop, live, and reproduce characters.


 This information is found in every cell of eukaryotes because of the presence of the nucleus where the DNA is present. Apart from nucleus small amounts of DNA is also found in mitochondria in all eukaryotic cell.





DNA structure:


Watson and Francis H.C Crick were the first persons to determine the double-helix model of DNA. Through this, they tried to announce the DNA structure and function. According to their findings, DNA replicates itself by separating into two individual strands and each strand behaves as a template for a new double helix.


As the two chromatids twist and look like a ladder hence it is named as a double helix model of DNA. Wholly the DNA is composed of three main components such as sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases. The nitrogenous bases are of two types they are:- Purines and Pyrimidines.

Purines: Adenine and guanine

Pyrimidines: Cytosine, thymine, and uracil


The pyrimidines are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds. These nitrogenous bases hold DNA strands together through hydrogen bonds and form complementary base pairing. That is the Adenine binds to thymine by two hydrogen bonds and guanine binds to cytosine by three hydrogen bonds. So these complementary bases can bind together and forms a double-stranded DNA molecule.


 The complementary base pairing pattern occurs because the amount of adenine(A) equals the amount of thymine(T) and the amount of guanine(G) equals the amount of cytosine(C). Hence these are called complementary base pairs.



DNA is a double-stranded helical structure. Which is made up of ribose sugar, Phosphate, and nitrogenous bases these forms into simpler monomer units called Nucleotides. Hence the two DNA strands are called polynucleotides. The sugar and phosphate forms backbone of DNA.



Each strand has a 5’ end and 3’ end. These two strands are antiparallel it means that if one of the strands runs in 5’ to 3’direction another strand runs in 3’ to 5’ direction. These two strands are complementary to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds



The 5’ end of each strand is held with a phosphate group and 3’ end with a hydroxyl group. The sugar and the phosphate are held by a phosphodiester bond. The nitrogenous bases always bind in this manner ( A-T) and( G-C). The diameter of the helix is 2nm.


Major groove and minor groove of DNA


DNA has two grooves. The larger groove is called a major groove and a smaller groove is called a minor groove. The grooves can be used to detect the base sequence of a specific DNA molecule.

In this article, we try to learn about the DNA structure and function. Now let us turn up to functions of DNA.






The function of DNA:


The most important function of DNA is the storage of genetic information. It is the only molecule that carries hereditary information. The information is enclosed in the form of genes. These genes are the small segments of DNA. The information is carried from cell to cell and from generation to generation.

 

Apart from the storage of information, it is also involved directly in metabolic activities, and also in the evolution process, heredity.

It is involved in directing protein synthesis.

It is a stable molecule that can store the information for longer periods.

After being noted about the structure and function of DNA it is necessary to find out its role in the present life

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Public health

 

Many kinds of research have been working out to found out the significance of genes in present-day life. According to gene environmental studies, scientists have focused much on public health.

 
In Bioinformatics

 

Plays a crucial role in bioinformatics. Which is helpful to know the evolutionary history of a particular organism. Bioinformatics involves developing new techniques to store the desired data, search, and manipulating the biological data to follow. To undergo several researches it uses wide advanced computer science.

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